There are several sects in the Islamic religion, including the basic ones, and some that are not widespread. In this article, We will review What are the doctrines of Islam?
So if this is the topic you are looking for then you are in the right place, let’s get started.
What are the main doctrines of Islam?
The main doctrines of Islam are four which are:
- Shafi school.
- Hanafi school.
- Hanbali school.
- The Maliki school.
What are the 4 main sects of Islam?
1- Shafi school:
The Shafi doctrine was founded by Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shāfi who was born in 767 AD and died in 802 AD. He was born in Gaza. Al-Shafi’s father died when he was still a little boy, so his mother took him to live with her in Mecca at the age of two years old. He memorized the whole Quran when he was seven and when he was 10, and he memorized Muwatta Malik when he was ten years old.
Al-Shafi said in his book ‘Al-Umm wa Al-Risala’ that his doctrine is based on the closest to Quran and sunnah or what is known among the Companions without disagreement
The approach of Imam Al-Shafi’i in his doctrine:
Al-Shafi’i explained his method of ijtihad that he relies on as:
The holy Qur’an, the Sunnah of the Prophet, and consensus. The Holy Qur’an is without disagreement the first reference. As for the rest of the references, they are:
- Al-Sunnah: Al-Shafi’i considers that the Noble Qur’an and the Sunnah are in the same rank in terms of inference. He also sees that the Sunnah abrogates the Sunnah, but the Qur’an does not abrogate the Sunnah. And if there is any conflict between the Quran and Sunnah then he takes the answer from the Quran.
- Ijma’: Al-Shafi’i believes that consensus is an argument, and it cannot be mistaken for it. The Companion’s saying: Al-Shafi’i did not consider the statement of the Companion to be an argument.
- Qiyas: Al-Shafi’i is considered analogy, but without any expansion.
- Approval and sent interests: Al-Shafi’i did not take approval and sent interests and did not consider them as a basis for legislation.
2- Hanafi school:
This doctrine was founded by Imam Abu Hanifa, his full name is al-Numan bin Thabit bin Zuti al-Kufi, his origins were Persian. He was in the year 80 AH and died in the year 180 AH. Abu Hanifa was the name that everyone called him by. He was known for his honesty. Imam Abu Hanifa knew about twenty companions and heard hadith from seven of them.
He said that his doctrines are based on ijtihad, he explained that he takes the answer from the Holy Quran and then the Sunnah of the prophet (peace and blessing be upon him).
The approach of Imam Hanafi in his doctrine:
The holy Qur’an and the Sunnah: he relied his answer mainly on the holy Quran.
- The Companion’s Fatwa: he took the answer from the Companion’s opinion if there is no conflict between them.
- Istihsan: Imam Ahmad used to use it when necessary.
3- The Maliki school.
The founder of the doctrine is Malik bin Anas bin Malik bin Amer, his nickname is Abu Abdullah. His grandfather Malik is one of the senior followers and his grandfather Amer is one of the companions of the Messenger of God (peace and blessing be upon him). Imam Malik was born in the year 93 AH and died in 179 AH. Before he takes the answer from the hadiths he first ensures that the hadith is a strong hadith not a weak one.
The approach of Imam Malik in the doctrine:
The sources he took his answers from are many including the holy Quran, Sunnah of the prophet (peace and blessing be upon him), analogy, and consensus.
- Sunnah: Imam Malik used to argue with the transmitted hadith. The saying of the companion: Imam Malik used to take the saying of the companion and consider it from the Sunnah, as he used to take the saying of the follower.
- The saying of the companion: Imam Malik used to take the saying of the companion and consider it from the Sunnah, as he used to take the saying of the follower.
- The analogy: Imam Malik used it as evidence, like all other imams.
The sent interest: Imam Malik is the only imam who invoked the sent interests if they were reasonable and appropriate to the purposes of the Sharia, as he took the principle of blocking excuses in most chapters of jurisprudence.
4- Hanbali school
The founder of the sect is Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, born in 164 AH and died in 241 AH. He was raised as an orphan and his mother raised him well. Their social conditions were difficult, and among the clear characteristics of his personality was self-esteem. He was also patient.
Imam Hanbali doctrine approach
Imam Hanbali was an imam in hadith and jurisprudence, and he had specific methods of ijtihad which include the following:
- Presenting the texts of the Qur’an and the Sunnah: With regard to the Sunnah, he did not present anything on the correct hadith from an opinion or a companion’s statement or analogy, as he also argued with the transmitted hadith.
- Consensus: Imam Ahmad used to say that unanimity abstained, and limited it to the consensus of the Companions.
- The Companion’s Fatwa: He used to take the fatwa of the Companions if he was not in conflict.
- Measurement: Imam Ahmad used it when necessary.
- Istihsan: he used to use it when necessary.
The most prominent differences in the doctrines of the Islamic religion:
The four doctrines all depend on the holy Quran and Sunnah of the prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). However, there are some differences or you can say there are things that they all didn’t agree on, and here they are.
Eating marine and amphibious animals: they all agreed that eating marine animals is okay. But when it comes to amphibious animals, Al-Shafi’I said that it is forbidden to eat while Ibn Hanbal permitted it.
Hajj is obligatory: Al-Hanafi and Ibn Hanbal made Hajj obligatory when possible, but Al-Shafi’i did not.
How many Islamic doctrines are there?
There are four main Islamic doctrines, they are Shafi school, the Hanafi school, the Hanbali school, and the Maliki school.
What are the 6 doctrines of Islam?
The schools of jurisprudence in Sunni Islam are not limited to the four well-known schools of thought, namely the Maliki, the Hanbali, the Shafi’i, and the Hanafi. There are many extinct sects, the most prominent of which are the Zahiri sect, the Sufyan al-Thawri sect, the Layth bin Saad sect, and the Awza`i sect.
So, the Extinct Doctrines of Islam include the Zahiri sect, the Sufyan al-Thawri sect, the Layth bin Saad sect, and the Awza`i sect.