Uthman Ibn Affan the third Caliph who is known as the Man with Two Lights, was one of the closest people to the prophet, and he was a pious man.
During his reign he expanded the Islamic state, many people converted to Islam, and he ruled with kindness and generosity. One of his famous accomplishments is the Compilation of the Quran and disturbing copies of the Quran to the Muslims.
What are the contributions of Uthman ibn Affan? Who is he? How did he die? That’s what we will find out in this article and much more, let’s get started.
Who is Uthman Ibn Affan?
Uthman Ibn Afan is the son of Affan ibn Abi al-AS, his full name is Uthman ibn Affan bin Al-Aas bin Umayyah bin Abdul Shams bin Abd Manaf. He was born in Makkah into a rich family in the sixth year of the year of the Elephant. His mother was Arwa bint Kurayz.
His father Affan ibn Abi al-AS died before Islam, and his mother passed away during his caliphate. Uthman was younger than the prophet by five years, and he accepted Islam early. He married the prophet’s daughter Ruqayyahh and when she passed away, he married her sister Umm Kulthum.
Uthman was born into a rich family and his father Affan ibn Abi al-AS was a famous and successful businessman. He had everything he needed but still, he became a kind, honest, generous, and modest man, and he was known for his integrity, and love to help the poor and the needy.
When his father passed away, he took over his father’s business and he became a successful businessman just like his father was. His business expanded as he was honest and trustful.
How did Uthman Ibn Affan enter Islam?
In the past Arabs were known for their racism and cruelty, they used to bury their daughters and treat their women as objects. The idea of women was that they were mad for their pleasure and to give birth only. They used to kill each other for silly reasons or no reason at all and treated their slaves with cruelty. They worshiped many idols and were known for their dishonesty.
Uthman Ibn Affan was born in a rich family, his father was a merchant, therefore Uthman became a merchant too, he traveled around the world and got to learn about the different beliefs and nations. This shaped his personality and made him different from the rest of the Quraish.
One day when he returned to Makkah, he heard about the prophet Muhammad. There was chaos due to the call of the prophet Muhammad to the people to worship only one God and to say that he was a prophet sent by God. The prophet was asking them to give up all the idols they were worshipping and to worship Allah. But to them, this seemed strange, because they followed what their fathers and grandfathers worshipped.
Uthman Ibn Affan knew the prophet, as he was known for his honesty and trustworthiness. However, he didn’t believe in Islam right away. But he remembered what the Christians and Jews said about the coming of the final prophet to lead people on the right path.
The third caliph then decided to visit his friend Abu Bakr whom he knew that he accepted Islam and asked him about Islam. so, Abu Bakr explained what Islam means and what it calls people to, and asked Uthaman to become a Muslim.
From what Uthman heard he felt that Islam was the right religion and he chose to convert to Islam. and when he met the prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), he declared that he converted to Islam.
In the beginning of Islam, Muslims were mistreated, the disbelievers oppressed them and tortured them in all ways to force them into leaving Islam. Uthman ibn Affan went through the same thing; he was tortured at the hands of his uncle Al-Hakam ibn Abi Al-`Aas.
However, Uthman didn’t give in to his uncle’s torture, and when his uncle lost hope, he let him be. So, Uthman chose to defend Islam with everything he has got. When Uthman accepted Islam, he became one of the closest people to the prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and he married his daughter Ruqayyah.
The Migration to Abyssinia.
Due to the oppression and torture that Muslims went through they migrated to Abyssinia to seek refuge, as the king of Abyssinia was known for being a just ruler. Uthman and his wife Ruqayyah also migrated to Abyssinia.
The ruler of Abyssinia gave the Muslim Migrants all the things they needed. The people of Quraish then tried to convince the ruler of Abyssinia to return the Migrants to them but he refused. During his stay in Abyssinia, Uthman started a new business and he and his wife Ruqayyah were blessed with a child whom they called Abdullah. Uthman was a kind and generous man; he chose to help the poor and needy.
Uthman Ibn Affan became the third Calipha.
When Umar ibn Khattab was on his deathbed, he conducted a council to choose the next caliph and Uthman Ibn Affan was chosen to be the third Caliph. When Uthman became the third caliph, he started by reminding the Muslims that this life is nothing but a test and that they better work for their hereafter. And not to get carried away by their desires and the false deception of this world.
Allah says in the holy Quran:
“And put forward to them the example of the life of this world, it is like water (rain) which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it, and becomes fresh and green. But (later) it becomes dry and broken pieces, which the winds scatter. And God is Able to do everything. Wealth and children are the adornment of the life of this world. But the good righteous deeds (five compulsory prayers, deeds of God’s obedience, good and nice talk, remembrance of God with glorification, praises, and thanks, etc.), that last, are better with your Lord for rewards and better in respect of hope.” [Quran 18: 45]
Uthman was a kind and generous man, he was known for his love of the holy Quran and for being a pious man.
It was narrated that Abu Abd Al-Rahman Al-Sulami said:
“Those who taught the Quran, such as Uthman ibn Affan, Abd-Allah ibn Masood, and others, told us that when they learned ten verses from the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), they would not go beyond them until they had learned the knowledge contained in them and how to apply it indeed. They said: So we learned the Quran and knowledge and its application together. Hence, they would spend a while to memorize a surah.”
Here are some of the sayings of Uthman Ibn Affan said about the Holy Quran:
“If our hearts were pure, we would never have our ﬁll of the words of Allah, may He be gloriﬁed and exalted.”
“I would not like the day to come when I do not look in the Covenant of Allah (i.e. Holy Quran).”
“There are four things which are outwardly virtues, but in reality are obligations: mixing with righteous people is a virtue and following their example is a duty, reading the Quran is a virtue and acting upon it is a duty, visiting the graves is a virtue and preparing for death is a duty and visiting the sick person is a virtue and asking him to make a will is a duty.”
“Ten things are the greatest waste of time: a scholar whom no one asks about, knowledge that is not acted upon, sound advice that is not accepted, a weapon that is not used, a Mosque that is not prayed in, a Mushaf (Quran) that is not read from, wealth from which nothing is spent (in charity), a horse that is not ridden, knowledge of asceticism in the heart of one who is seeking worldly gain and a long life in which no preparation is made for the journey (into the Hereafter).”
The third Caliph first assured the Muslims that he would guide them like the prophet Muhammad and the previous caliph did. Then Uthman reminded the governors and the armies of their true purpose which is to serve the people and not to fall for the life temptations.
During the reign of the third Calipha, there were many conquests in order to expand the Islamic reign and spread Islam.
Achievements of Othman bin Affan.
Athman Ibn Affan became the third Calipha after the death of Umar ibn Al-Khattab. He achieved and accomplished many things during his Caliphate (reign), some of which are:
- The expansion of the Islamic state: during the reign of the third Caliph there were many conquests to expand the Islamic reign and let Islam spread across the world. among those conquests are the conquest of Murrow, Turkey, Alexandria, Armenia, Caucasus, Khurasan, Kerman, Africa, and Cyprus.
- Expanding the Mosque of the prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): during the reign of Uthman, he expanded al-Masjid Al-Nabawi.
- Establishing the ﬁrst Islamic ﬂeet: to protect the Islamic beaches from the Byzantine attacks he established the ﬁrst Islamic ﬂeet.
- Compilation of the Quran: one of the greatest achievements of Othman bin Affan is the Compilation of the Quran. The Compilation of the holy Quran started in the caliphate of Abu Bakr Siddiq and was finished in the caliphate of Uthman.
Due to the expansion of the Islamic reign many of the new Muslims were not Arabic speakers. Therefore in order to help them all recite the holy Quran correctly Uthman made copies of the holy Quran and distributed it.
Hudhaifah (R.A.) said to Uthman (R.A.):
“O Prince of Believers, save this nation before they differ concerning the Book (Quran) as the Jews and the Christians did.”
Uthman (R.A.) said:
“Send us the manuscript so that we may make copies of it, then we will return it to you”.
What did the Prophet Muhammad say about Uthman ibn Affan?
The Prophet said: “The most compassionate of my Community towards my Community is Abu Bakr; the staunchest in Allah’s Religion is `Umar; and the most truthful in his modesty is `Uthman.”
The Prophet praised `Uthman and said: “Shall I not feel bashful before a man when even the angels feel bashful before him?”
How was Uthman Ibn Affan related to Prophet Muhammad?
Uthman Ibn Affan married the daughter of Prophet Muhammad Ruqiayah and when she passed away, he married the other daughter of the prophet Umm Kulthum, therefore he was called the possessor of two lights “Dhun-Nurain”.
Who is the father of Othman?
The father of the third Caliph Uthman was Affan ibn Abi al-AS, a famous merchant.
Who is Uthman Ibn Affan’s wife?
Uthman Ibn Affan was called the Man with Two Lights because he was married to the daughter of the prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), Ruqiayah, and when she passed away, he married her sister Umm Kulthum. Therefore, he was called the man with two lights because he married two of the prophet Muhammad’s daughters.
How did Uthman Ibn Affan die?
Uthman Ibn Afan was Murdered by some of the rebellious. He knew who they were but he refused to kill them. He couldn’t shed the blood of a Muslim, and he didn’t want to kill another Muslim just for his own sake. The third caliph reigned with kindness and generosity
So, on the 18th of Dhul-Hijjah 35AH, the rebellions broke into the house of Uthman Ibn Affan and murdered him. And that is how the life of a kind and generous ruler ended with a tragic ending.
Is Othman bin Affan one of those promised Paradise?
Yes, Uthman Ibn Affan is one of the 10 companions promised paradise.
Here are the names of the 10 companions of the prophet Muhammad who were promised Jannah, May Allah Be Pleased With them all:
- Abu Bakr.
- Umar ibn Khattab
- Uthman bin Affan
- Ali bin Abu Talib
- Talha Ibn Ubaidullah
- Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam
- Abdur Rahman Bin Auf
- Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas
- Saeed Ibn Zayd
- Abu Ubaida ibn Al-Jarrah
Now you know everything you need to know about the third Caliph, Uthman Ibn Affan who was a kind, pious, generous, modest, and trustful man. Uthman loved helping the poor and the needy even before he entered Islam. He accomplished many things during his reign, among which Compilation of the Quran.
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